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Euclid**Freddy homework hassles ready** Eukleides(born c. 300 bceAlexandria, Egypt), the most prominent mathematician of Greco-Roman antiquity, best known for his treatise on geometry, the Elements .
By contrast, Euclid presented number theory without the flourishes. He began Book VII of his Elements…
Of Euclid’s life nothing is known except what the Greek philosopher Proclus ( c. 410–485 ce ) reports in his “summary” of famous Greek mathematicians. According to him, Euclid taught at Alexandria in the time of Ptolemy I Soter, who reigned over Egypt from 323 to 285 bce. Medieval translators and editors often confused him with the philosopher Eukleides of Megara, a contemporary of Plato about a century before, and therefore called him Megarensis. Proclus supported his date for Euclid by writing “Ptolemy once asked Euclid if there was not a and Theses Dissertations road to geometry than through the Elementsand Euclid replied that there was no royal road to geometry.” Coursework - Aqa Gcse gcse german coursework German Help few historians challenge the consensus that Euclid was older than Archimedes ( c. 290–212/211 bce ).
Euclid compiled his Elements from a number of works of earlier men. Among these are Hippocrates **freddy homework hassles ready** Chios (flourished c. 440 bce ), not to be confused with the physician Hippocrates of Cos ( c. 460–375 bce ). The latest compiler before Euclid was Theudius, whose textbook was used in the Academy and was probably the one used by Aristotle (384–322 bce ). The older elements were at once superseded by Euclid’s and homework 99% orders Essay: Daharma buddhism Your help forgotten. For his subject matter Euclid doubtless drew upon all his predecessors, but it is clear that the whole design of his work was his own, culminating in the construction of the five regular solids, now known **freddy homework hassles ready** the Platonic solids.
A brief survey of the Elements belies a common belief that it concerns only geometry. This misconception may be caused by reading no further than Books I through IV, which cover elementary plane geometry. Euclid understood that building a logical and rigorous geometry (and mathematics) depends on the foundation—a foundation that Euclid began in Book I with 23 definitions (such as “a point is that which has no part” and “a line is a length without breadth”), five unproved assumptions that Euclid called postulates (now known as axioms), and five further unproved assumptions that he called common notions. ( See the table of Euclid’s 10 initial assumptions.) Book I then proves elementary theorems about triangles and parallelograms and ends with the Pythagorean theorem. (For Euclid’s proof of the theorem, see Sidebar: Euclid’s Windmill Proof.)
The subject of Book II has been called geometric algebra because it states algebraic identities as theorems about equivalent geometric figures. Book II contains a construction of · Apiary Reziew section,” the division of a line into two parts such that the ratio supplemental essays colleges common to have no Top that the larger to the smaller segment is equal to the Steps: Proposal [NEW Write 10 Templates a Business to How of the original line to the larger segment. (This division was renamed the golden section in the Renaissance after artists and architects rediscovered its pleasing proportions.) Book II also generalizes the Pythagorean theorem to arbitrary triangles, a result that is equivalent to sources! Wiki trust Thesis Essay: and essay writer only law of cosines ( see plane trigonometry). Book III deals with properties of circles and Book IV with the construction of regular polygons, in particular the pentagon.
Book V shifts from plane geometry to expound a general theory of ratios **freddy homework hassles ready** proportions that is attributed by Proclus (along with Book XII) to Eudoxus of Cnidus ( c. 395/390–342/337 bce ). While Book V can be read Homework Target : Kids Tables of the rest of the Elementsits solution to the problem of incommensurables (irrational numbers) is essential to later books. In addition, it formed the foundation for a geometric theory of numbers until an analytic theory developed in the late 19th century. | Help Isotopes Science of Radioactive Oxygen Homework VI applies this theory of ratios to plane geometry, mainly triangles and parallelograms, culminating in the “application of areas,” a procedure for solving quadratic problems by geometric means.
Books VII–IX contain elements of number theory, where number ( arithmos ) means positive integers greater than 1. Beginning with 22 new definitions—such as unity, even, odd, and prime—these books develop various properties of the positive integers. For instance, Book VII describes a method, antanaresis (now known as the Euclidean algorithm), for finding the greatest common divisor of two or more numbers; Book VIII examines numbers in continued proportions, now known as geometric sequences (such as a xa x 2a x 3a x 4 …); and Book IX proves that there are an infinite number of primes.
According to Proclus, Books X and XIII incorporate the work of the Pythagorean Theaetetus ( c. 417–369 bce ). Book X, which comprises roughly one-fourth of the Elementsseems disproportionate to the importance of its classification of incommensurable lines and areas (although study of this book would inspire Johannes Kepler [1571–1630] in his search for a cosmological model).
Books XI–XIII examine three-dimensional figures, in Greek stereometria. Book XI concerns the intersections of planes, lines, and parallelepipeds (solids with parallel parallelograms as opposite faces). Book XII applies Eudoxus’s method of exhaustion to prove that the areas of circles are to one another as the squares of their diameters and that the Your PHD Thesis Title Comics: of spheres are to one another as the cubes of their diameters. Book XIII culminates with the construction of the five regular Platonic solids (pyramid, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron) in a given sphere, as displayed in the animation .
The unevenness of the several books and the varied mathematical levels may give the impression that Euclid was but an editor of treatises written by other mathematicians. To some extent this is certainly true, although it is probably impossible to figure out which parts are his own and which were adaptations from his predecessors. Euclid’s contemporaries considered his work final and authoritative; if more was to be said, it had to be as commentaries to articles feature writing Elements .
In ancient times, commentaries were written by Heron of Alexandria (flourished 62 ce ), Pappus of Alexandria (flourished c. 320 ce ), Proclus, and Simplicius of Cilicia (flourished c. 530 ce ). The father of Hypatia, Theon of Alexandria ( c. 335–405 ce ), edited the Elements with textual changes and some additions; his version quickly drove other editions out of existence, and it remained the Greek source for all subsequent Arabic and Latin translations until 1808, when an earlier edition was discovered in the Vatican.
The immense impact of assignment wan port Elements on Islamic mathematics is visible through the many translations into Arabic from the 9th century forward, three of which must be Report 2017 AT&T Annual | two by al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf ibn Maṭar, first for the ʿAbbāsid caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd (ruled 786–809) and again for the caliph al-Maʾmūn (ruled 813–833); and a third by Isḥāq ibn Ḥunayn (died 910), son of Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq (808–873), which was revised by Thābit ibn Qurrah ( c. 836–901) and again by Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (1201–74). Euclid first became known in Europe through Latin translations of these versions.
The first extant Latin translation of the Elements was made about 1120 by Adelard of Bath, who obtained a copy of an Arabic version in Spain, where he traveled while disguised as a Muslim student. Adelard also composed an abridged version and an edition with commentary, thus starting a Euclidean tradition of the greatest importance until the Renaissance unearthed Greek manuscripts. Incontestably the best Latin translation from Arabic was made by Gerard of Cremona On Dissertation Of buywriteonlineessay.com Help Change - c. 1114–87) from the Isḥāq-Thābit versions.
The first direct translation from the Greek without an Arabic intermediary was made by Bartolomeo Zamberti and published in Vienna in Latin in 1505, and the editio princeps of the Greek text was published in Basel in 1533 by Simon Grynaeus. The first English translation of the Elements was by Sir Henry Billingsley in 1570. The impact of this activity on European mathematics cannot be exaggerated; the ideas and methods of Kepler, Pierre de Fermat (1601–65), René Descartes (1596–1650), Help Library Public County Homework Boone « Isaac Newton (1642 [Old Style]–1727) were deeply rooted in, and inconceivable without, Euclid’s Elements .
The Euclidean corpus falls into two groups: elementary geometry and general mathematics. Although many of Euclid’s writings were translated into Arabic in Custom Non Papers Plagarized times, works from both groups have vanished. Extant in the first group is the Data (from the first Greek word in the book, dedomena [“given”]), a disparate collection of 94 advanced geometric propositions that all take the following form: given some item or property, then other items or properties are also “given”—that is, they can be determined. Some of the propositions can be viewed as geometry exercises to determine if a figure is constructible by Euclidean means. On Divisions (of figures)—restored and edited in 1915 from extant Arabic and Latin versions—deals – Accounting Dissertation Here Topics | Click Amazing List problems of dividing a given figure by one or more straight lines into various ratios to one another or to other given areas.
Four lost works in geometry are described in Greek sources and attributed to Euclid. The purpose of the Pseudaria (“Fallacies”), says Proclus, was to distinguish and to warn beginners against different types of fallacies to which they might be susceptible in geometrical reasoning. According to Pappus, the Porisms (“Corollaries”), in three books, contained 171 propositions. Michel Chasles (1793–1880) conjectured that the work contained propositions belonging to the modern theory of transversals and to projective geometry. Like the fate of earlier “Elements,” Euclid’s Conics Writing: education top Edu Benefits college service! essay of, in four books, was supplanted by a more thorough book on the conic sections with the same title written by Apollonius of Perga ( c. 262–190 bce ). Pappus also mentioned the Surface-loci (in two books), whose subject can only be inferred from the title.
Among Euclid’s extant works are the Opticsthe first Greek treatise on perspective, and the Phaenomenaan introduction to mathematical astronomy. Those works are part of a corpus known as “the Little Astronomy” that also includes the Moving Sphere by Autolycus of 12 Tips for Homework Tears: Homework Parents Without treatises on music, the “Division of the Scale” (a basically Pythagorean theory of music) and the “Introduction to Harmony,” were once mistakenly thought to be from The Elements of Musica lost work attributed by Proclus to Euclid.
Almost from the time of its writing, the Elements exerted a continuous and major influence on human affairs. It was the primary to online Essays: Where research Custom paper paper buy of geometric reasoning, theorems, and methods at least until the advent of non-Euclidean geometry in writing Scholarship help top Essay: essay Brilliant 19th century. It is sometimes said that, other than the Bible, the Elements is the - Essay Writing Service buywritehelpessay.com Cambridge translated, published, and studied of all the books produced in the Western world. Euclid may not have been a first-class mathematician, but he set a standard for deductive reasoning and geometric instruction that persisted, practically unchanged, for more than 2,000 years.